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Farming in Sennen

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The Vingoe's or their descendents have farmed in Sennen for hundreds of years. Today whilst the family connection to the actual Lands End may have gone,  its connection with the land at Trevescan, and indeed Trevilley is not entirely extinct. Below I give a list of fields farmed by Israel Vingoe in 1838, his descendants still farm these fields, amongst others and a field at Trevilley is called 'Israel's Craft'- given the complex pattern of land tenure in times passed it is quite possible that this field was his also.

But let us start the Farming story in early august 1662, William Shellinks and his companions left Penzance at 8 o’clock to ride to Land’s End, passing through Newlyn which is ‘low down by the sea,’ then on through St. Buryan, St., Levan coming finally to Sennen. ‘We saw there many animals grazing at the outermost end of the land, where the land is very narrow. We rode on our horses as far as the steeply descending ground allowed..." 

What William Shellink saw was a strip system of farming in which different people owned different sections or fields. This was due to the hereditary system adopted by the Cornish which was carried on  until the nineteenth century. Unlike the English system where the eldest son tended to inherit all, in Cornwall the farms were split amongst the children.An example of this is shown in the wills of John and Jone Vingoe. 

John's will is dated 1657. five years before Shellink visited the Lands End, The copy we have is very hard to read but we have gleaned the following from it.

john's will 1657.jpg (178243 bytes)

I John Vingoe of the parish of Stining in the County of Cornwall being sick of body and not of mind and the fore mentioned so mindful ........ our last Will and Testament, I Bequeath my body ..... unto ministry..... and christian burial and this is my will as followeth.

From John to Jone Vingoe my wife all freehold estate of freehold living for remainder of her natural life. And the aforesaid John give half of the tenement justly in trust to William Vingoe, Jenkyn Vingoe, Peter Vingoe, John Vingoe and Martyn Vingoe so long as the natural life of Peter Vingoe, Jenkyn Vingoe John Vingoe pass to William Vingoe enshrined on his living Heirs for ever.

One shilling to the poor of the parish.

One shilling to Henry.................

See also  Will of   Joan Vingoe dated 1684/5

 Ref. DSB 441/1 Cornwall County Records Office.

Also in the Quaker records, Jenkyn Vingoe had cattle, sheep and corn removed from him in place of fines imposed by Justice Jones.  

Farming in 1838.

Rick Parsons the owner of the West Penwith Resources site has done a Map of the parish which will help you identify the land which was being farmed by Vingoes in the 1830's when the Tithe map was drawn up.

In 1838 the government ordered that a new tithe map and agreement be drawn up for the Sennen parish and a record made of who owned the land and who worked it. A meeting was held and an agreement made as to what tithes would be paid. and on the 30th of November 1838 the Tithe Commissioners confirmed the agreement for the commutation of tithes. The tithe map and the book that accompanies it or in the Cornwall Record Office. There is also a filmed copy at the Local Studies Library Redruth. I know of one other hard copy which is in the hands of a private individual which was bought at Auction some years ago. Working from these sources I have been able to glean the following information.

The basis of the agreement was as follows:

The whole parish of Sennen contains by estimation two thousand and fifty acres of land by statute measure.

The whole quantity of the lands of the said parish which are subject to the payment of any kind of tithes is by estimation two thousand and fifty acres by statute measure.

The whole quantity lands subject to tithes within the said parish which is cultivated or arable is by estimation four hundred and sixteen acres statute measure.

The whole quantity of land subject to tithes within the said parish cultivated as meadow or pasture land is by estimation eight hundred and thirty four acres statute measure. 

There is no land subject to tithes within the said parish now cultivated as woodlands.

The whole quantity of Moor, Marsh Furze and Heath land within the said parish subject to tithes so far as such land is subject to tithes is by estimation eight hundred acres statute measure.

The under mentioned moduses or prescription or customary payments are payable instead of the under mentioned tithes of the said parish, that is to say;

For each fat bullock - one shilling; for each milch cow - six pence; for each bare cow - four pence; for each sheep - one penny; for each lamb - two pence; for the tithe of each garden - five pence; for members of the family above sixteen years of age - twopence; for each colt - two pence; for each goose above ten and under seven - one half penny.

The valuers who had been appointed then set a gross rent of five hundred and thirty pounds to be paid to the tithe owner in lieu of tithes. this had to be paid as per the schedule that they had drawn up. The valuers were: William Marrack of Penzance, John Semmons the younger of Gulval and William Richards of Penzance.

Using the map and shedule I have been able to work out the land owned or leased by members of the Vingoe family in 1838. Also the amount of tithes they had to pay.

Isreal Vingoe of Trevescan in the Parish of Sennen.

                                                                                                                                                               Isreal map.jpg (386365 bytes)Isreal Vingoe farmed land at Trevescan and the Lands End as shown on the tithe map of 1838. You can click on the map to get a bigger image. Fields 481 and 547 are mentioned on the mining page 547 being called "Bellows and House" field in the tithe book of 1838 but there is no sign of any building on the map. The name has probably been passed down from the early 1700's when a smelting house was operated on the site.

On the 1838 Tithe return Isreal is shown as working the following fields, the numbers correspond with those on the map.

    land owner

 land worked by

  Number on Map

Name & Description

State of Cultivation

 Statute Measure

    a           r          p

Isreal Vingoe

         Himself

        481

    The Cliff & Lands End

Turbury

  10      2     38

 

 

        540

All Craws Meadow

Arable

    1       .     37

 

 

        541

All Craws Moor

Arable

    1       .     12

 

 

        543

Fowling Pool

Water

            1     26

 

 

        547

House & Bellows

Arable

     1            38

 

 

        548

Park Brew

Arable

     1      3    29

 

 

        566

Long Field

Arable

     2      1    24

 

 

        569

Musvoe

Arable 

     1      3   22 

         

 

        590

Gulveas

Arable

             3    22

 

 

        600

The Lawn

Arable

     1      .     17

 

 

        601

Waste adjoining the Road

Waste

                   25

 

 

        604

Mowhay

Homestead

                   12

 

 

        605

Dwelling House & plot

Homestead

                   11

 

 

        622

Dwelling House & Yard

Homestead

                   10

 

 

        623

Garden

Garden

                     6

Total Area                                         23a      1r     11p

Total rent assessed to be paid            £2      0s  0d

-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-

William Vingoe of Escalls in the Parish of Sennen

WILLIAMS MAP3.jpg (90631 bytes)

William Vingoe farmed at Escalls

 

    land owner

 land worked by

  Number on Map

Name & Description

State of Cultivation

 Statute Measure

    a           r          p

William Vingoe

Himself

6a

Corner Meadow

Arable

             2    12

 

 

7    

North Croft

Arable

              3       7

 

 

11

Largo field

Arable

   1        2    30

 

 

  15 

Little Croft

Arable

              1     20

 

 

24

Footway field

Arable

   1        3    25

 

 

27   

Park Venton

Arable

   1        1    24

 

 

  30

The meadow

Arable

    1                1

 

 

  43

Closithen

Arable

    1        2     26

 

 

 55    

Barn Mowhay

Homestead

                     9

 

 

58a

Dwelling house mowhay

Homestead

                     8

 

 

59    

2/3rds of a Mowhay

Homestead

                   14

 

 

61

Dwelling house

Homestead

                     3

 

 

71

Stable & part of a Mowhay

Homestead

                     3

 

 

89    

Clodgy

Arable

    1        2 

 

 

112 

Park an Shiptid

Arable

   1        2    24

 

 

114

Park an Towan

Arable

     1       1       7

 

 

115  

Park an Towan

Arable

             2    26

Total Area                                        7a       3r    37p

Total rent assessed to be paid           £1      15s  0d

William also leased lands for the St Aubyn family of St Michael's Mount.

    land owner

 land worked by

  Number on Map

Name & Description

State of Cultivation

 Statute Measure

    a           r          p

St Aubyn 

W Vingoe

         66

Barn shelter Garden plot

Homestead

                  11 

John Vingoe

William Vingoe

              5

part of field

Arable

                    29

Total Area                                                                                                                                           40p

 

Johns Land 2.jpg (39095 bytes)

John Vingoe also farmed at Escalls

 
 

    land owner

 land worked by

  Number on Map

Name & Description

State of Cultivation

 Statute Measure

    a           r          p

 John Vingoe

 himself

          22

 Meadow

 Arable

   1               32

         "

       "

          25

 Parc Venton 

 Arable

   1               

         "

       "

          28

 The Meadow

 Arable

             2      33

         "

       "

          29

 Lower Meadow

 Arable

             2      34

         "               

       "    

          31

 Closithen

 Arable

             5      36

         "

       "

          35

 The Oath

 Arable

             2      20

         "   

       "

          36

 The Oathe

 Arable    

             3      75

         "

       "

          49

 Cottage & Mowhay

 Homestead

                      34

         "

       "

          57

 2 x cottages & Mowhay

           "

                        2

         "

       "

          69

 Cottage & Mowhay

           "

                       15

 

       "

          88

 Parc Trevorran

 Arable

     1      2      23

         "         

       "

          78

 Cliff Field

 Arable

             2      28

         "

       " 

          18

 Lane Field

 Arable

             3        8

         "

       "

          82

 Three Cornered   Field

 Arable

             3       22

         "  

       "

          93

 Meadow

 Arable 

      1              35

         "

       " 

        106

 Square Field

 Arable

      1      2        0

         "

       "

        107

 Meadow

 Arable

       1     1        6 

         "

       "

        103

 Parc Plymouth

 Arable

       1               4 

         "

       "

        103a

 Dwelling House & Garden

 Home & Garden

                      13

         " 

       "

        103b

Dwelling house & Plot

             "

                        4

         "

       "

         103c

Dwelling house & Plot

             "

                        4

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Last modified: Thursday January 13, 2005 .0